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ICOS sites of the University of Helsinki

SMEAR I - Värriö

SMEAR I is the oldest of SMEAR stations and located at the top of a hill at the
Arctic-alpine timberline in Värriö nature park in eastern Lapland. The main
emphasis at SMEAR I is on interactions between trees and atmosphere, air quality
and aerosols. It is located at a distance of about 200 km from the emission sources of
Kola Peninsula in order to study the effects of pollutants on air quality and fragile subarctic ecosystem.



Station name

Värriö (SMEAR I)

Coordinates

N 67° 45.295' , E 29° 36.598'

Altitude

400 m asl

Ecosystem type

Evergreen coniferous forest

Station characterization

Supporting ICOS ecosystem station

 






Observations

Parameter

Instrument

Measurement height

Period

CO2 flux (EC)

LI7200 + Metek USA-1

17 m

2012 - present

CO2 flux (automatic chamber)

Vaisala GMP343

forest floor

2012 - present

CO2 flux (automatic chamber)

URAS 3 / Li-Cor Li840

trees

1992 - present

Supporting observations

Air temperature and humidity, soil temperature and moisture, soil heat flux, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation

 



Climatology and vegetation

Climate data point

LPNN 9601 (1981-2010)

Average temperature (°C)

-1

Annual precipitation (mm)

600

Average snow depth at mid-March (cm)

80

Median snow cover start and end date

Oct 20 – May 20

Vegetation type

Uliginosum-Empetrum-Myrtillus type (UEMT) forest; Pinus sylvestris; forest floor: dwarf shrubs and mosses

Mean vegetation height (m)

10

Max projected LAI of trees

1.5

Soil type

Rock with humus layer of varying depth

Stand volume (m3 ha-1)

60

Tree density (ha-1)

770

Tree age (years)

60

Read more:

Ruuskanen T.M., Reissell A., Keronen P., Aalto P.P., Laakso L., Grönholm T., Hari P., Kulmala M. 2003. Atmospheric trace gas and aerosol particle concentration measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland 1992–2001. Boreal Environment Research 8, 335–349.

 

SMEAR II - Hyytiälä

SMEAR II is a full ICOS ecosystem station and in the near future also an ICOS atmospheric station. The station is located close to the Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station in Juupajoki, Southern Finland. The station has several operation units to reach into and above the tree canopy: a 127 m tall tower for atmospheric and flux measurements, one 18 m tower for irradiation and flux measurements and another for tree physiology measurements. Soil and soil water measurements are performed on two small water catchment areas.



Station name

Hyytiälä (SMEAR II)

Coordinates

N 61° 50.845' , E 24° 17.686'

Altitude

180 m asl

Ecosystem type

Evergreen coniferous forest

Station characterization

Class 1 ICOS ecosystem station
ICOS atmospheric station

 






Observations

Parameter

Instrument

Measurement height

Period

CO2 flux (EC)

LI6262 + Solent R1012

23 m (46 m)

1996 - present

CO2 flux (EC)

LI6262 + Solent HS1199

22 m

2002 - present

CO2 flux (EC, below canopy)

LI7000 + Solent R1012

3 m

2004 - present

CO2 flux (automatic chamber)

URAS 4 / Li-Cor LI840

trees and forest floor

1997 - present

CO2 flux (automatic chamber)

Vaisala GMP343

forest floor

2008 - present

CH4 flux (profile)

Picarro G1301

17, 67, 125 m

2012 - present

Supporting observations

Air temperature and humidity, soil temperature and moisture, soil heat flux, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation

 



Climatology and vegetation

Climate data point

LPNN 9601 (1981-2010)

Average temperature (°C)

4

Annual precipitation (mm)

700

Average snow depth at mid-March (cm)

50

Median snow cover start and end date

Nov 20 – Apr 20

Vegetation type

Vaccinium type (VT) forest; Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies; forest floor: dwarf shrubs and mosses

Mean vegetation height (m)

17

Max projected LAI of trees

2.5

Soil type

Glacial till

Stand volume (m3 ha-1)

200

Tree density (ha-1)

1400

Tree age (years)

50

Read more:

Hari, P. & Kulmala, M. 2005. Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II). Boreal Environment Research 10: 315–322.

 

SMEAR II - Siikaneva

The Siikaneva fen is a protected and nearly pristine large open peatland area in the vicinity of the Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station and the SMEAR II pine forest. Micrometeorological and ecological measurements are performed at two plots of different peatland vegetation.

 



Station name

Siikaneva

Coordinates

N 61° 50.845' , E 24° 12.686'

Altitude

162 m asl

Ecosystem type

Southern boreal fen

Station characterization

Class 2 ICOS ecosystem station

 






Observations

Parameter

Instrument

Measurement height

Period

CO2 flux (EC)

LI7000 + Metek USA-1
LI7200 + Metek USA-1

3 m

2005 - present
2011 - present

CH4 flux (EC)

LI7200 + Metek USA-1
RMT200 + Metek USA-1

3 m

2005 - present
2011 - present

Supporting observations

Air temperature and humidity, peat temperature and water table, soil heat flux, global radiation, net radiation, chamber measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes

 



Vegetation

Vegetation type

Plot 1: Fen; Sedges and mosses
Plot 2: Bog; Dwarf shrubs, sedges, mosses

Mean vegetation height (m)

0.2

Max projected LAI of trees

0

Soil type

Peat

 

Read more:

Rinne, J. , Riutta, T. , Pihlatie, M. , Aurela, M. , Haapanala, S. , Tuovinen, J-P. , Tuittila, E-S., Vesala, T. 2007. Annual cycle of methane emission from a boreal fen measured by the eddy covariance technique. Tellus 59B, 449–457.

 

SMEAR II - Kuivajärvi

Kuivajärvi lake station is located right next to the Hyytiälä Forestry Field station. Measurements on a floating platform shed light on the forest-lake-atmosphere carbon cycle, nutrient cycling in the lake and the lake-atmosphere energy and gas exchange. Water quality measurements are also taken from the incoming and outgoing rivers and at the riparian zone.



Station name

Kuivajärvi

Coordinates

N 61° 50.743' , E 24° 16.920'

Altitude

141 m asl

Ecosystem type

Southern boreal lake

Station characterization

Supporting ICOS ecosystem station

 






Observations

Parameter

Instrument

Measurement height

Period

CO2 flux (EC)

LI7200 + Metek USA-1

1.5 m

2009 - present

Supporting observations

Air temperature and humidity, water temperature, CO2 profile and O2, global radiation, net radiation